Censorship is the intentional curbing of ideas in speech and writing before they are expressed. Notice the word before. The idea is denied before even being put to words. Our rights of freedom of speech insure no government official can prevent anything being said or written. Once something is expressed, you are accountable for it. A person can express themselves and then be charged with libel, slander, obscenity, etc. They get a free ticket to express, but not a free ride.
Academic freedom is the idea that teachers and students have the right and duty to pursue the truth with no restrictions as long as it is along the lines of accepted scholarship. Notice it includes students. Violations of academic freedom are handled with due process, just like criminal and civil cases. In an ideal world, a student can write and tell the truth in a scholarly fashion such as a debate or research paper and not be retaliated against. A teacher does not have to adhere to any orthodoxy and it should not affect their job.
Now let’s talk reality. There is some gray areas in these two basic rights that we as citizens and the courts struggle with daily. Motion pictures are slightly censored. Communities have the right to ask for films to be given to a censor for review. School publications that do not support the school mission can be censored. Any music or art that is created using federal funding is subject to a decency clause. These philosophies have all been supported with court cases. Depending what community you are talking about, academic freedom varies. The courts nearly refuse to put conditions that stifle the freedom to teach and learn. Yet, educational programs are investigated. Teachers political views are put into question. Student and teachers private political or social activities are brought to light anytime there is a conflict with censorship or academic freedom.
Live the lie or live the truth. Both have consequences. Or maybe it is the struggle that really counts.